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  • 임실출장샵❖예약금없는출장샵┓임실오류동 안마방〔임실안마방 예약〕➶〖임실안마방 왕가슴녀〗♜임실화곡 마사지┛임실군대 안마방⊿임실마사지 근육◘임실심천 마사지▧임실안마방 얼마냐

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    부산출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    임실출장샵☼예약금없는출장샵┫임실오류동 안마방〔임실라오스 마사지〕☇〖임실필승 안마방〗☻임실마사지 태국어☲임실안마방 내상▦임실출장시™임실신데렐라 안마방◐임실김천 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 평창대전 마사지 추천 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    임실출장샵░예약♠임실오류동 안마방〔임실마사지 배우는곳〕β〖임실안양 마사지〗タ임실안마방 69┑임실안마방 알바 후기◎임실안마방 요도염▫임실타이 마사지 후기╝임실마사지 포르노

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    임실출장샵⇚예약금없는출장샵⇛임실오류동 안마방〔임실대전 출장〕✎〖임실대전 모텔 가격〗☠임실장애인 안마방┗임실안마방 콘돔✒임실안마방 비비기✿임실수유역 마사지◦임실부천 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 포항출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    임실출장샵⇥출장부르는법↩임실오류동 안마방〔임실수원역 안마방〕♣〖임실강동구 안마방〗╎임실신림동 여관ハ임실안마방 사정○임실출장최고시ア임실남친이랑 마사지ハ임실안마방 카드사용

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 완주카카오출장 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    임실출장샵┛24시출장샵▲임실오류동 안마방〔임실천안 립〕✈〖임실코코넛오일 마사지〗◕임실마사지 노출♀임실서울역 마사지⇟임실고양이 마사지▶임실안마방 첫경험♪임실오피스 방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    임실출장샵임실일산 안마방 가격

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    임실출장샵↞예약☶임실오류동 안마방〔임실베이징 마사지〕▷〖임실답십리 마사지〗◐임실제주시청 마사지シ임실사상 출장ア임실정준하 마사지✃임실사상 출장⇙임실여성전용 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 서울대구 동대구역 모텔 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 서울출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    용인태국 마사지 서비스 대구출장안마 여수목포 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    임실출장샵η예약♀임실오류동 안마방〔임실진접 안마방〕┎〖임실금정 마사지〗↞임실남자 전립선 마사지◁임실제주시청 마사지♠임실출장마사지 후기↿임실건전 마사지☁임실아마 시안

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 청양부천 대딸방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    임실출장샵➶출장부르는법╌임실오류동 안마방〔임실송원장 마사지〕⇂〖임실마사지 텀블러〗ξ임실누드 마사지♂임실안마방 도촬◈임실오송 마사지◥임실동암 마사지♩임실별내 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 천안출장샵 .

    여수마사지 토렌트
    충주목 마사지 대전출장샵 증평폰섹 녹음
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    임실출장샵┱예약═임실오류동 안마방〔임실고양이 변비 마사지〕➴〖임실평택 모텔 추천〗◣임실군산 마사지➼임실왁싱 마사지☻임실송탄 마사지✓임실안마방 토렌트♪임실턱살 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. anma4you.xyz .

    임실출장샵£예약☇임실오류동 안마방〔임실김원중 안마방〕➡〖임실고시촌 안마방〗↡임실군자역 안마방カ임실서울대 안마방♭임실제주도 안마방 추천➹임실건대 안마방◐임실원주 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 서울출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 양산두정동 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    임실출장샵⊙예약금없는출장샵♮임실오류동 안마방〔임실출장샵〕✕〖임실홍대 안마방 위치〗╩임실신사역 안마방┃임실안마방 오픈시간╊임실관평동 마사지メ임실경성대 마사지↪임실호치민 1군 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    임실출장샵╞예약═임실오류동 안마방〔임실연산동 마사지〕♣〖임실전립선 마사지 썰〗╉임실안마방 장부►임실강릉 여관⇘임실오십견 마사지╚임실연수동 마사지☠임실세븐 상추 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 구미얼굴 작아지는 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 진주출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 계룡동대구 모텔 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    임실출장샵♪24시출장샵ღ임실오류동 안마방〔임실태국 에스코트 비용〕┅〖임실마사지 망가〗♭임실경동맥 마사지☭임실레즈 안마방↨임실마사지 토렌토♨임실보령 안마방↪임실마사지 태국어

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and bitsnoop.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    임실출장샵☠24시출장샵♐임실오류동 안마방〔임실안마방 유출〕ψ〖임실병점 안마방〗┲임실속초 여관⊥임실안마방 썰만화┲임실눈 마사지▄임실태국 전립선 마사지✡임실안마방 핸드폰

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    오산출장샵예약
    구미출장안마 담양안마방 한번싸면 군산출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    임실출장샵╓예약금없는출장샵メ임실오류동 안마방〔임실영주 마사지〕↼〖임실출장최고시〗▧임실테니스공 마사지ヘ임실클럭 마사지◊임실선릉 안마방➹임실천호동 마사지▷임실고딩 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.임실출장샵임실제주도 안마방⇗임실성인 안마방フ〖임실동대구역 모텔〗임실운서동 안마방⇅임실베이징 마사지┖임실인천 출장 마사지☆임실인천 안마방タ군산출장안마출장부르는법임실이기광 안마방➦임실경주 안마방☏《임실황제 마사지》임실여자 모텔♨임실유성 안마방↤임실방콕 에스코트☀임실의정부 여관▤임실출장샵부천마사지 도구임실김포 타이 마사지☻임실아다 안마방☜<임실제주도 마사지>임실일본 안마방£임실중국 마사지⇚임실아로마 마사지 부작용◎임실수원 출장↪임실구로디지털단지 안마방┼임실노량진 안마방♚{임실스웨 디시 마사지 란}임실출장 오피ψ임실안마방 전화번호 저장✖임실평택 모텔 가격☁임실안마방 가는 법⇌임실마사지 porn»임실서울 출장샵♮『임실눈커지는 마사지』임실칠곡 안마방チ임실타이 마사지 가격♭임실실제 안마방↶임실인천 안마방╯임실서산 안마방↧임실역곡 안마방♨【임실노원 마사지 추천】임실대전 마사지 추천┉임실출장샵 예약금✥임실소라넷 안마방∴임실거제도 여관┞출장부르는법공주운정 안마방24시출장샵임실성내동 안마방☰임실마사지 움짤エ「임실안마방 영업시간」임실콜걸출장안마╄임실육덕 마사지➷임실존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지╨임실안마방 경험♥임실출장샵임실출장샵바카라사이트임실도봉구 안마방임실이상근 마사지임실세븐 안마방임실신림 아로마 마사지임실출장샵임실맹인 마사지╝임실서울 안마방 추천₪〈임실서현역 마사지〉임실20대 안마방χ임실안양 안마방 후기⇜임실이태원 마사지☊임실아침에 안마방➴논산안마방 한국야동

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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