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  • 고흥출장샵㍿24시출장샵➼고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥포항 안마방]↼『고흥부산 모텔』•고흥안마방 체크카드×고흥대구 모텔 추천웃고흥마사지 레전드 품번★고흥괌 안마방┠고흥대전 모텔 추천

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    서울출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

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    The governments of more than 190 nations 삼척마사지 근육 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

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    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

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    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    고흥출장샵↴출장부르는법↺고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥천호동 마사지]◊『고흥창동 안마방』✖고흥관자놀이 마사지⇜고흥발마사지⇉고흥마사지 마무리☻고흥남성 왁싱♫고흥한국마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 계룡강동 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    고흥출장샵↿출장부르는법➳고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥시흥동 안마방]┛『고흥국 노』ⓛ고흥멜라니☼고흥백석동 마사지♥고흥양산 젤리 마사지↣고흥거제도 모텔 추천♦고흥사당

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 목포출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    고흥출장샵◊출장부르는법↖고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥감성 마사지]⇜『고흥구리 안마방』✿고흥안마방 질싸↜고흥금촌 안마방”고흥태평역 안마방↴고흥천안역 여관↹고흥마사지 만화

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 안동두통 완화 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    창원출장안마
    영월마사지 일본 포항출장안마 옥천안마방 사이트
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 광주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    고흥출장샵☱예약금없는출장샵§고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥최음 마사지]▧ 『고흥태국 마사지 야동』➢고흥영통 안마방▪고흥소주잔 마사지➻고흥마사지 간판구분╘고흥타이마사지 불법┓고흥안마방 짜파게티

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 오산논현동 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

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    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

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    익산마포 마사지 구미출장안마 평택아로마마사지 팁
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

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    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대구출장샵 .

    고흥출장샵┰24시출장샵⇡고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥유흥인 토렌트]↭『고흥답십리 마사지』☻고흥고현 안마방➴고흥여주 안마방☏고흥분당 안마방┏고흥일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지⇦고흥구의역 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And wonderlend.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 구리세부 마사지 엑스트라 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    고흥출장샵╯예약W고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥금천구 안마방]♣『고흥부천 만남』╁고흥카톡☇고흥타이마사지 섹스♩고흥세부 안마방→고흥장안동 안마방♨고흥호치민 리버티 마사지 가격

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

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    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 광양구로 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 삼척코 높아지는 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    고흥출장샵0예약금없는출장샵┄고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥여성 전용 마사지]┗『고흥서울 출장샵』☈고흥베트남 마사지 야동⇗고흥아로마마사지 꿀팁ニ고흥감성마사지란ツ고흥로미 마사지◤고흥석남동 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 부산출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    고흥출장샵⇛24시출장샵⊿고흥안마방 물다이 몰카[고흥방콕 변형 마사지]║『고흥티켓 썰』▤고흥평촌 안마방╣고흥태국 마사지 torrent◁고흥타이 마사지 가격☣고흥태국 아로마 마사지✲고흥천안 출장 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

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    카지노사이트 천안천안 출장마사지 광주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

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    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.고흥출장샵고흥출장 후기◐고흥마사지 방법▫『고흥타이 마사지 서비스』고흥서울 출장 후기♐고흥수암 마사지╣고흥교대 안마방♐고흥대전 모텔 다방✔서울출장안마예약고흥창녕 마사지↿고흥레즈 안마방→(고흥범계 마사지)고흥금천구 마사지┳고흥행신 안마방┆고흥안마방 싼▼고흥신천 마사지⇘고흥출장샵예천하단 안마방고흥av 마사지 추천➛고흥군포 마사지♗《고흥스즈 하라 에미리 마사지》고흥대전 황궁 마사지⊙고흥서현역 안마방➶고흥콜걸후기τ고흥삼산동 마사지ノ고흥영대 안마방♧고흥눈붓기빼는 마사지╬ 《고흥일본 오일 마사지》고흥대전 마사지マ고흥구래동 마사지”고흥마사지 출장┪고흥고양이 변비 마사지↕고흥출장최고시❀고흥fc2 마사지☁(고흥남친 안마방)고흥턱살 마사지☒고흥유성 안마방 후기☻고흥출장샵안내♪고흥마사지 porn⇗고흥엘프 마사지λ고흥국 안마방✡<고흥하노이 vip 마사지>고흥허벅지 마사지✎고흥op↯고흥안마방 sex▧ 고흥간석오거리 안마방U예약보은안마방 avi24시출장샵고흥안마방 쓰리섬➼고흥소라넷 안마방◦<고흥서울역 안마방>고흥마사지 단속 시간⇢고흥손 마사지ル고흥야탑 안마방☺고흥엑소 안마방♢고흥출장샵고흥출장샵포항출장샵고흥출장샵추천고흥정액 마사지고흥출장마사지고흥안마방 vip고흥출장샵고흥울산 명촌 안마방➳고흥수안보 안마방◎<고흥고현 안마방>고흥전완근 마사지0고흥수암 마사지▩고흥목동역 마사지➸고흥평택역 마사지✄함안국산_신작_안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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